Abstracts – JRAHS Volume 102 Part 2 December 2016
James Stephen’s Doctrine of a White Australia
James Stephen’s doctrine of a white Australia, the second of two articles on the origins of the White Australia policy, explains the contribution of British imperialism to the development of an Australian national identity in the second half of the 19th century. James Stephen, as permanent undersecretary at the Colonial Office, wrote several minutes, which he characterised as speculations of a ‘theological’ or ‘philosophical’ cast, arguing that the Australian colonies should be ‘reserved’ for emigrants from the British Isles. The diffusion of ‘our Race, language, Law, and Religion’ across the vastness of Australia, he argued, would establish ‘a Christian Nation and an Enlightened state’ in the eastern hemisphere. Stephen’s minutes presage the aspirations and ideals that later became the foundations of the White Australia policy.
A Community, a Council and a Flood Risk: the case of Maitland, New South Wales, and some ramifications
Flooding has greatly influenced the development of Maitland, New South Wales, as have the efforts made to keep floodwaters out of its built-up areas. Today there is strong evidence that the effects of floods, only partly tamed by levee building, have been forgotten and that Maitland is embarking on a developmental future that will see a much-enlarged population living in flood-liable areas. What the Maitland City Council envisages, with state government support, raises the prospect of severe economic losses and possibly loss of life when big floods strike. Other Australian towns are also at enhanced risk because of unwise development planning for floodplains.
The Curious Case of Sammy Cox
Sammy Cox is an intriguing figure of Australian history. He claimed to have lived with Aboriginal people in Tasmania for over twenty-five years after his arrival around 1790. Reaching the age of 117 (by his estimation), he was reputed to be heir to an earldom, although he died in poverty in 1891. In old age he began to tell the story of having another name, as the son of a gentry family in Staffordshire. This article explores the transmission of his narrative, his multiple identities, and attempts to establish the kernel of truth beneath them. His story should join those of other pretenders and impostors in the colonies, as well as playing a role in the Australian cultural imaginary of ‘wild white men’.
A Short Note on Long Cove
Historians have recently accepted that Long Cove was sited at Darling Harbour following work on Aboriginal placenames by the Sydney archaeologist Val Attenbrow in 2002. This article explores the evidence that Long Cove may have been located further west, being that body of water bounded by Balmain, Drummoyne and in its southern reaches by Leichhardt and Haberfield.
Richard Guise: Englishman or French Duke
Richard Guise (c.1757-1821) of Liverpool, New South Wales is depicted in written material as a French nobleman and the Duc de Guise. Descendants to the fourth generation are credited with royal blood. Yet no evidence can be found for these claims. Research shows that Richard, a sergeant in the New South Wales Corps, did not flee France on the eve of the Revolution, as has been claimed, and cannot have been the Duc de Guise. The circulation of such fallacies does not appear until about 125 years after his death and were circulated through the childhood memories of an aging Dame Mary Gilmore. Her memoirs are accepted and reiterated as fact when the evidence points to Richard being an ordinary Englishman.
Winged Victory and Marrickville’s Memory of War: defining personal and communal loss in Sydney’s Inner West
Using the Sydney locality of Marrickville as a case study, this article investigates the intersection of personal and communal grief during and directly after World War I, through the correspondence of soldiers and their families from the Marrickville Municipality. Correspondence between Marrickville Council and the bereaved illustrates the role communities and local memorials played in the mourning process, and in facilitating commemoration. This leads to an analysis of the framework set up by Marrickville Council to acknowledge the service and sacrifice of soldiers from this community in the war.